Gallery 1 ’Hankō' (Clan Schools) and 'Terakoya' (Temple Elementary Schools)

Photograph:Diorama of Scenes in 'Terakoya' The clan Schools (Hankō) in Yamagata Prefecture were Kōjōkan in Yonezawa, Meishinkan in Kaminoyama, Keigikan in Yamagata, Yōjōkan in Tendo, Meirindō in Shinjo, Chidōkan in Shonai, and Satonikan in Matsuyama.  There were not many township schools, but a few were known to have existed during the period between the end of the Edo Era and the Meiji Restoration. Elementary schools at temples called Terakoya and other private schools were increasingly popular toward the end of the Edo Era.
 Displayed here are scenes of Terakoya in diorama, etc. 
Gallery 2 The Start of Schools
Displayed:Picture of students doing their physical exercises  In the year 1872 (Meiji 5), when school systems were first being promulgated, there were hardly any elementary schools in either Yamagata or Sakata prefectures, and there were only 11 in Okitama Prefecture.
 Textbooks were a miscellaneous mixture of direct translations of western textbooks, common textbooks called Ōraimono, Chinese classics, and such. Published books were insufficient, so classes used wall charts all the pupils could look at together. 
 An architectural model of an early Meiji era primary school is displayed here. 
Gallery 3 From Meiji To Taisho
Photograph:Yamagata's songs, teaching plans for classes and  reports sent from school to home  In Yamagata Prefecture, the prefectural normal school Yamagata-ken Shihan-gakkō was established first, followed by  the normal school for women, middle schools, girls' schools, then vocational schools, and so on. In 1920 (Taisho 9), Yamagata High School was established. 
 In this period, elementary education in this prefecture made substantial progress. Enrollment rates surpassed 90% in the fourth decade of Meiji, and in a few years by 1916 (Taisho 5), the prefecture rose to be ranked third (10th in attendance) in the nation, up from its ranking in the forties in previous years.
 Displayed here are pupils' clothes from the Taisho Era, and textbooks and such from the Meiji and Taisho eras. 
Gallery 4 Education in the early Showa Era
Photograph:Slate and Stationery  The educational environment of the early Showa Era which inherited the "Liberal Education" concept of the Taisho Era was pupil-centric, valuing the students' independent attitudes.
 However, when World War II began, the idea of  liberal education was eliminated, control and restriction on education were enforced, and a war time system was established.
 Yamagata Prefecture ranked first in the Achievement Test for Youth (a test young adult men take for military service).  The rank was publicized for some years and Yamagata held on to its first rank throughout the period. 
 Exhibited here are diorama of elementary schools scenes, pedaling machines to train handicapped children,and other items. 
Gallery 5 Education in Wartime
Photograph:Clothing of children in wartime The name shōgakkō for elementary schools was replaced by kokumin-gakkō with kokumin meaning national people. Textbooks were made under pressure from the military. 
 Students in  middle school and above had to obey the "Student Work Order" , "Student Mobilization Order" and the like, which meant they had almost no time in classes.
 As the war situation worsened,  students were evacuated, recruited for labor services and as students began to leave for the front, classes above elementary school were suspended for a year based on the "educational measures to win the war" and normal  educational activities became impossible.
 Here you can view the video "The Fighting Youth of the Nation" along with clothing and such of children in wartime.  
Gallery 6 New Education
Photograph:Textbooks after wartime In 1947 (Showa 22), the Fundamental Education Law and the School Education Law were promulgated under the Constitution of Japan, starting the new educational system in the new era, which included establishing things like the 6-3-3-4 year system, Boards of Education, governmental curriculum guidelines and PTA activities. 
 Boards of Education, established first at the prefectural level and then in each municipality in Yamagata, engaged in improving educational conditions through measures like school construction and facility enhancements. 
  Textbooks, incuding some which are blacked out, are displayed here. 
Gallery 7 History of Teacher Training
Photograph:'Shūshi-kai' Bulletin of the Yamagata Prefecture Normal School  After the promulgation of the school system, the Yamagata Normal School Yamagata-ken Shihan-gakkō was established in 1878 (Meiji 11) to train teachers. In 1901 (Meiji 34), it was moved and rebuilt at the location of the current  branch museum, the Educational Resources Museum (Kyōiku Shiryōkan). The division for women which was added in 1889 (Meiji 22) went through abolition and restoration, then became independent in a newly constructed building as the Yamagata Women's Normal School  in 1902 (Meiji 35). 
 These normal schools and a youth normal school established afterwards merged and became the Yamagata University Department of Education, in accordance with postwar educational system reforms. The display here  focuses on material related to the Yamagata Prefecture Normal School, the Women's Normal School and the Youth Normal School.